Frequently Asked Questions

Dr. Holub has provided the questions and answers for several emails he has received over the years regarding omega-3 fatty acids for health.  If you have a question regarding omega-3, it is likely that Dr. Holub has answered it either here in this section, or elsewhere on the site (e.g. check the scientific overview section for general questions regarding omega-3).  To quickly find your answer, please use our search bar located in the top right section of this page.  After searching our site, and  you still cannot find the answer to your question, we invite you to ask Dr. Holub a question here.

What is the preferred ratio of DHA/EPA in supplements?
WHat is the recommended intake of DHA+EPA per day?
Is too much DHA harmful during pregnancy?
Can you overdose on DHA and EPA?
What about '3:6:9' capsules as supplementary sources?
What is the difference between DHA from fish oil vs. flaxseed?
Why consume both DHA and EPA during pregnancy?
What is a recommended dose of omega-3 to eliminate belly fat?
Can 900 mg of EPA/DHA be taken on an empty stomach or is it better to take with a meal ?
I read that krill oil as a source of omega-3 fatty acids was 48x more effective than fish oil and much more bioavailable – is this true?
Is DHA supplementation safe during pregnancy?
Is there a recommended dose of EPA/DHA for children with ADD?
Is there a Tolerable Upper Limit for Omega-3 intake in adults?
What is the recommended daily intakes of omega-3 for children?
Can you recommend a specific brand of omega-3-6-9?
My fish oil supplement states: 180 mg EPA + 120 mg DHA. How many capsules/day would provide me with 600 mg EPA?
Can Omega 3 actually improve the efficiency of the adult brain?
Can you take a omega 3 fish oil supplement and still drink a few beers or a few glasses of wine?
Are there plant sources of DHA?
Is DHA better for cardiovascular care than EPA? What should I focus on?
Can omega-3 improve my memory and thinking skills?
Are both DHA and EPA needed for prenatal health?
Are there risks in taking 180 mg EPA plus 120 mg DHA daily ? How long before it may be effective ?
What is the recommended intake in mg/day of DHA/EPA to improve skin health, elasticity, and memory?
Is there an optimal time during the day to take the EPA/DHA supplement ?
How long does one have to supplement with (2-3 g per day) omega-3 until their DHA/EPA levels reach a higher level?
Can omega-3 supplementation reduce hair loss?
Is the omega-3 in the egg white or yolk?
Does a list of foods containing DHA exist?
Will DHA increase blood sugar levels and lower glucose tolerance in a person who is pre-diabetic?
Is it true that a supplement with a EPA:DHA ratio of 7:1 is improtant for any potential effects on mood?
Is the ratio of EPA/DHA crucial for cognitive function?
Do Sacha Inchi nuts contain omega-3 fatty acids?
Is there any omega-3 as DHA/EPA in coconut oil/butter?
Can DHA/EPA influence high blood pressure?
What about garlic supplements and omega-3?
Do you have a list of fish/natural foods that are high in DHA/Omega-3?
Are omega-3 fatty acids beneficial for psoriasis?
Do hemp seeds contain omega-3?
What is the recommended intake and ratio of DHA/EPA for adults?
Does this omega-3 vitamin supplement help hair loss?
Does DHA/EPA help eczema (contact dermatitis)?
Is there a proper ratio of DHA:EPA for adults and what is that natural ratio in fish?
Is the DHA/EPA in fish destroyed by cooking?
Is there DHA and EPA in raw natural chia seeds and , if present, what is their bioavailability ?
Is taking 32 grams/day for weight loss too much in your opinion ?
In what foods is DHA found in?
I am wondering what kind of evidence there is between omega 3s and depression?
Is it safe to take Omega-3 with out consulting a Doctor?
What ratio (DHA/EPA) is preferred for a cardio application?
How many 1000mg capsules containing 360mg DHA/EPA per capsule are needed to attain 3000mg DHA/EPA daily?
What is DPA?
Do Omega-3s have some benefit to sufferers of bipolar disorder and/or depression?
Is it important to consume DHA only (eg., 300 mg/day) during pregnancy and lactation or should one consume DHA+EPA?
Does psyllium husk inhibit fish oil absorption if taken concurrently?
Are there over-the-counter omega-3 supplements containing DHA/EPA which can lower fasting triglyceride levels if elevated?
Should I be taking DHA or EPA during pregnancy?
How does a vegan acquire DHA , an essential nutrient for the brain, if they don't ever consume it.
What is the recommended intake of DHA/EPA per day for healthy adult women?
How much omega-3 from food and/or supplements in too much?
Does omega-3 have an adverse effect on the prostate?
Can I count on my supplement having a good rate of absorption?
How much DHA is there in cod liver oil?
Can you get DHA from taking Cod Liver Oil Supplements?
What are the accepted blood serum ranges for DHA, EPA and Arachidonic Acid?
Does ALA offer any potential health benefits independent of its conversion to EPA/DHA and can one attain target intakes of DHA/EPA witho
Should people who are taking supplemental EPA/DHA also be taking a vitamin E supplement?
Are Omega-3 and other EFAs destroyed through cooking?
Might too much DHA reduce the benefits of EPA for those with Multiple Sclerosis who may be taking omega-3 supplements?
What is the daily recommended intake of DHA for healthy adults?
Are there any shelf-life issues with products containing DHA/EPA?
Does Chia have omega-3?
Is supplementation necessary if I am consuming fish regularly?
As a mother of a baby, is it possible to get too much DHA?
Is there any evidence that EPA may be harmful during pregnancy?
How much DHA/EPA should I take if I am suspected of having multiple sclerosis?
What are normal levels of EPA and DHA in human blood plasma lipid?
If I’m taking omega-3 at 300 mg/day, how much omega-6 should I be taking?
Can taking a daily fish oil supplement contribute to stomach/intestinal gas in some cases?
I've been told that krill oil is a rich source of omega-3 and they're more available than those from fish oil?
Will most people who are allergic to eating fish exhibit and allergy to taking supplements containign DHA or DHA/EPA?
My mother is 73 years old and does not know whether to consume EPA or DHA to try and retain her mental capacity ?
Can you comment on the daily requirements for teenagers and active females?
Are the effects of statins different than the effects of omega-3 fatty acids?
What is the average intake of DHA in toddlers at 3 years of age?
Does krill oil have a better bioavailability than traditional fish oil ?
Can omega 3's help eliminate the atrial fibrillation and if so at what dosage?
Is there a difference in the levels of DHA/EPA in farmed vs. wild salmon?
What is the recommended level of supplementation during pregnancy?
Has DHA/EPA omega-3 supplementation been found to benefit children with ADHD (Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder)?
Should one focus on DHA for brain health in childhood or DHA+EPA as used in the Durham trial in children with developmental coordination disorder?
Is there a difference in the availability or efficacy of an ethyl ester (EE) vs. a triglyceride (TG) form of EPA/DHA?
Does ALA provide significant health benefits aside from its limited convertibility to DHA and EPA?
Is there an optimum amount (DHA + EPA) for a healthy person and is there a risk of the body getting used to them such that cessation for a period of time may pose some difficulty?
Some claim the oil from calamari (squid) to be very rish in DHA - really ?
Does DHA/EPA supplementation benefit those with osteoarthritis?
How can one choose fish oils with a knowledge of the presence of certain heavy metals?
Are there any official recommendations for omega-3 fatty acid intakes?
If I am taking DHA/EPA supplements, does the bioavailabilty differ according to the time of day when I take these?
Have there been published studies showing a protective effect of omega-3 in PTSD (Post Tramatic Stress Disorder) and concussions?
Do trans fats and saturated fats have an affect on the absorption of omega-3?
Are there veggie sources of DHA for children ?
Can DHA/EPA supplementation be taken while on an anti-coagulant?
Can a person on warfarin take 2 tablespoons of flaxseed each day?
Are omega-3 fatty acids beneficial for spinal stenosis?
Is there any evidence to indicate that DHA/EPA can help vision ?
Can one actually feel any physical effects on the heart by taking omega-3 fatty acids?
What is the omega-3 content of Whitefish?
Could my inflammatory symptoms be brought on by simply ingesting supplements containing omega-3-6-9 fatty acids?
What are your thoughts about different recommended intakes?
THe conversion rate of ALA to EPA/DHA has been well studied in humans. What about EPA conversion to DHA ?
What will be the appropriate amount of omega-3 should given to 4 year old boy?
Are there any studies on omega-3 and high myopia indicating that supplementation might be helpful?
What is the process involved in the manufacture of DHA/EPA rich fish oil?
Can DHA/EPA from fish and krill oils be expected to lower blood cholesterol levels ?
Thank you your great evidence-based information ! Is algal DHA diferent from fish oil DHA ?
Are there any non-prescription supplements available which contain high levels of DHA/EPA?
Is a daily intake of 550 mg of DHA/EPA for the possible reduction in the risk of fatal heart attack and stroke excessively high?
Is overdosing with EPA/DHA a common problen such that only the precursor LNA should be used ?
Is there a specific ratio of DHA:EPA that should be present in a supplement for overall health?
How long does it take for DHA to reach acceptable levels in the breast milk of lactation women?
What is the recommended daily intake for a 22 month old girl?
What types of omega-3 fatty acids are in seal oil?
Has DHA/EPA been taken along with low-dose aspirin in clinical trials?
Does Chia oil have omega-3 fatty acids and how does this source compare with fish oil?
Is there any potential benefit of DHA/EPA to the eldery?
Are there any possible concerns for vegan vegetarians who consume ALA from plant sources without any DHA/EPA in their diet?
I have myopia and hyperopia in my right eye. Would DHA cure my hyperopia and myopia?
What is the procedure for determining the amount of omega-3 fatty acid in one’s own body?
What is stearidonic acid? Is it an omega-3 fatty acid?
Are there any differences in the bioavailability and efficacy of triglyceride (TG) vs. ethyl ester (EE) forms of DHA/EPA?
Should an anti-oxidant be present in omega-3 supplements containing DHA/EPA?
Are there any recent articles on conversion efficiency?
Can omega-3 oils help in treating melanoma ?
Does black raspberry or black cumin seed oil have DHA/EPA ?
What is the largest and longest study ever performed supporting a beneficial effect of consuming DHA omega-3 in Alzheimer disease?
How much DHA/EPA (sum) has been recommended in N.Am. for healthy adults and what levels per day may be considered excessive?
Does DHA omega-3 interfere with Cyclosporine? Will it help with retinitis pigmentosa?
Is there any recent evidence that supplemental DHA/EPA may help against eczema?
Does eating 3 servings (100 gm/serving)of fish per week provide enough DHA for a pregnant women ?
Are there any studies indicating that adverse affects could result from the concomitant intake of supplemental vitamin C with DHA/EPA?
Some websites state caution in avoiding fish oil which has been overly oxidized - agree ?
What is the potential benefit of supplementation with EPA/DHA for people with inflammatory bowel disorders?
I consume a cereal containing flax, corn and amaranth which states that I'm getting 350 mg of omega-3 per serving. What is the source?
Can a veggie source of EPA give rise to DHA in humans ?
Where can I obtain blood testing for the Omega Score and the Omega-3 Index?
Have there been published clinical trials on omega-3 and urination?
Is there a benefit for cardio care in consuming ALA with DHA and EPA?
Can the administration of omega-3 supplements to a patient on anti-coagulants drug therapy experience bleeding problems?
Do you have any information on the omega-3 content of farmed or wild salmon and its mercury content?
I’m interested in supplementing my diet with DHA and EPA but I am allergic to fish oil capsules since they cause an immediate bout of psoriasis. Are there any commercially-available fish oils that I c
Are you aware of any human studies on a low DHA omega-3 status in male sperm being related to infertility ?
Might the DHA/EPA in omega-3 enriched pork and eggs be as available as from fish ?
Is salmon a source of DHA and is breast milk a preferred source of DHA over formula for infants?
Have there been any published studies on DHA omega-3 and optic neuritis?
What daily doses of EPA/DHA have been used in the juvenile or adult studies with rheumatoid arthritis.
Are there certain ratios of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that can be beneficial in a patient having had a stroke and exhibiting some aphasia?
Have there been any safety studies on patients with stage 3 kidney disease who are taking supplemental DHA/EPA?
Are there any long term studies comparing the availability of triglyceride vs. ethyl eater forms of EPA/DHA ?
Can I record Dr. Holub's presentation about DHA for eye and brain development and share such great information with moms?
How important is it for an infant to be given a DHA-containing infant formula if the mother cannot breastfeed?
Has there been any research on DHA/EPA in people with seizure disorders?
Are you aware of any “natural enzymes” present in fish oil?
What is your opinion on the absorbtion/bioavailability of EE vs. TG forms of fish oil?
What is the evidence on impact of fish or fish oil supplements on asthma in young children?
Is there a sound scientific study to show a synergistic heralth effecy by combining DHA with whey protein ?
Have there been any studies which have provided daily dosages of DHA/EPA to those who have suffered a heart attack?
Is there any evidence in the literature for interactions between high-dose omega-3 fish oil and warfarin?
Have there been any studies on the potential for DHA/EPA supplementation to reduce the risk of the recurrence of colon cancer?
Are there good human studies to show a benefit for the green-lipped mussel oil in treating arthritis ?
Are you aware of any clinical studies that have been conducted fish oil containing DHA in Downs syndrome patients?
Dr. Holub - I can't find any human information on the conversion potential of LA (omega-6)to AA (omega-6)?
I attended the symposium put on by the DHA/EPA Institute where a ? speaker discussed omega-3 and mercury.
Does ALA offer any potential health benefits independent of its conversion to EPA/DHA and can one attain target intakes of DHA/EPA witho
Might too much DHA reduce the benefits of EPA for those with Multiple Sclerosis who may be taking omega-3 supplements?