Frequently Asked Questions

Dr. Holub has provided the questions and answers for several emails he has received over the years regarding omega-3 fatty acids for health.  If you have a question regarding omega-3, it is likely that Dr. Holub has answered it either here in this section, or elsewhere on the site (e.g. check the scientific overview section for general questions regarding omega-3).  To quickly find your answer, please use our search bar located in the top right section of this page.  After searching our site, and  you still cannot find the answer to your question, we invite you to ask Dr. Holub a question here.

What is the preferred ratio of DHA/EPA in supplements?
WHat is the recommended intake of DHA+EPA per day?
Is too much DHA harmful during pregnancy?
Can you overdose on DHA and EPA?
What about '3:6:9' capsules as supplementary sources?
What is the difference between DHA from fish oil vs. flaxseed?
Why consume both DHA and EPA during pregnancy?
What is a recommended dose of omega-3 to eliminate belly fat?
Can 900 mg of EPA/DHA be taken on an empty stomach or is it better to take with a meal ?
I read that krill oil as a source of omega-3 fatty acids was 48x more effective than fish oil and much more bioavailable – is this true?
Is DHA supplementation safe during pregnancy?
Can you take a omega 3 fish oil supplement and still drink a few beers or a few glasses of wine?
What is the recommended daily intakes of omega-3 for children?
Is there a recommended dose of EPA/DHA for children with ADD?
Is there a Tolerable Upper Limit for Omega-3 intake in adults?
My fish oil supplement states: 180 mg EPA + 120 mg DHA. How many capsules/day would provide me with 600 mg EPA?
Can Omega 3 actually improve the efficiency of the adult brain?
Can you recommend a specific brand of omega-3-6-9?
Are there plant sources of DHA?
Can omega-3 improve my memory and thinking skills?
Are there risks in taking 180 mg EPA plus 120 mg DHA daily ? How long before it may be effective ?
Are both DHA and EPA needed for prenatal health?
Is there an optimal time during the day to take the EPA/DHA supplement ?
Is DHA better for cardiovascular care than EPA? What should I focus on?
What is the recommended intake in mg/day of DHA/EPA to improve skin health, elasticity, and memory?
How long does one have to supplement with (2-3 g per day) omega-3 until their DHA/EPA levels reach a higher level?
Will DHA increase blood sugar levels and lower glucose tolerance in a person who is pre-diabetic?
Can omega-3 supplementation reduce hair loss?
Is the omega-3 in the egg white or yolk?
Do Sacha Inchi nuts contain omega-3 fatty acids?
Is the ratio of EPA/DHA crucial for cognitive function?
Does a list of foods containing DHA exist?
Is it true that a supplement with a EPA:DHA ratio of 7:1 is improtant for any potential effects on mood?
What about garlic supplements and omega-3?
Is there any omega-3 as DHA/EPA in coconut oil/butter?
Can DHA/EPA influence high blood pressure?
What is the recommended intake and ratio of DHA/EPA for adults?
Does DHA/EPA help eczema (contact dermatitis)?
Do hemp seeds contain omega-3?
Are omega-3 fatty acids beneficial for psoriasis?
Do you have a list of fish/natural foods that are high in DHA/Omega-3?
Is the DHA/EPA in fish destroyed by cooking?
Does this omega-3 vitamin supplement help hair loss?
Is there a proper ratio of DHA:EPA for adults and what is that natural ratio in fish?
What is DPA?
Is taking 32 grams/day for weight loss too much in your opinion ?
Is there DHA and EPA in raw natural chia seeds and , if present, what is their bioavailability ?
Is it safe to take Omega-3 with out consulting a Doctor?
In what foods is DHA found in?
I am wondering what kind of evidence there is between omega 3s and depression?
How many 1000mg capsules containing 360mg DHA/EPA per capsule are needed to attain 3000mg DHA/EPA daily?
What ratio (DHA/EPA) is preferred for a cardio application?
Does psyllium husk inhibit fish oil absorption if taken concurrently?
Is it important to consume DHA only (eg., 300 mg/day) during pregnancy and lactation or should one consume DHA+EPA?
Do Omega-3s have some benefit to sufferers of bipolar disorder and/or depression?
Should I be taking DHA or EPA during pregnancy?
How does a vegan acquire DHA , an essential nutrient for the brain, if they don't ever consume it.
How much DHA is there in cod liver oil?
Are Omega-3 and other EFAs destroyed through cooking?
How much omega-3 from food and/or supplements in too much?
Are there over-the-counter omega-3 supplements containing DHA/EPA which can lower fasting triglyceride levels if elevated?
Does omega-3 have an adverse effect on the prostate?
What is the recommended intake of DHA/EPA per day for healthy adult women?
Can I count on my supplement having a good rate of absorption?
What are normal levels of EPA and DHA in human blood plasma lipid?
Should people who are taking supplemental EPA/DHA also be taking a vitamin E supplement?
What are the accepted blood serum ranges for DHA, EPA and Arachidonic Acid?
Can you get DHA from taking Cod Liver Oil Supplements?
Does ALA offer any potential health benefits independent of its conversion to EPA/DHA and can one attain target intakes of DHA/EPA witho
Is there any evidence that EPA may be harmful during pregnancy?
What is the daily recommended intake of DHA for healthy adults?
Does Chia have omega-3?
Are there any shelf-life issues with products containing DHA/EPA?
Is supplementation necessary if I am consuming fish regularly?
Might too much DHA reduce the benefits of EPA for those with Multiple Sclerosis who may be taking omega-3 supplements?
If I’m taking omega-3 at 300 mg/day, how much omega-6 should I be taking?
My mother is 73 years old and does not know whether to consume EPA or DHA to try and retain her mental capacity ?
As a mother of a baby, is it possible to get too much DHA?
I've been told that krill oil is a rich source of omega-3 and they're more available than those from fish oil?
Does krill oil have a better bioavailability than traditional fish oil ?
Can taking a daily fish oil supplement contribute to stomach/intestinal gas in some cases?
How much DHA/EPA should I take if I am suspected of having multiple sclerosis?
Are the effects of statins different than the effects of omega-3 fatty acids?
Can you comment on the daily requirements for teenagers and active females?
What is the recommended level of supplementation during pregnancy?
Is there a difference in the levels of DHA/EPA in farmed vs. wild salmon?
Is there an optimum amount (DHA + EPA) for a healthy person and is there a risk of the body getting used to them such that cessation for a period of time may pose some difficulty?
Can omega 3's help eliminate the atrial fibrillation and if so at what dosage?
Are omega-3 fatty acids beneficial for spinal stenosis?
Will most people who are allergic to eating fish exhibit and allergy to taking supplements containign DHA or DHA/EPA?
What is the average intake of DHA in toddlers at 3 years of age?
If I am taking DHA/EPA supplements, does the bioavailabilty differ according to the time of day when I take these?
Should one focus on DHA for brain health in childhood or DHA+EPA as used in the Durham trial in children with developmental coordination disorder?
Are there any official recommendations for omega-3 fatty acid intakes?
Has DHA/EPA omega-3 supplementation been found to benefit children with ADHD (Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder)?
Does ALA provide significant health benefits aside from its limited convertibility to DHA and EPA?
How can one choose fish oils with a knowledge of the presence of certain heavy metals?
Does DHA/EPA supplementation benefit those with osteoarthritis?
Can a person on warfarin take 2 tablespoons of flaxseed each day?
What is the omega-3 content of Whitefish?
Is there a difference in the availability or efficacy of an ethyl ester (EE) vs. a triglyceride (TG) form of EPA/DHA?
Do trans fats and saturated fats have an affect on the absorption of omega-3?
Have there been published studies showing a protective effect of omega-3 in PTSD (Post Tramatic Stress Disorder) and concussions?
Some claim the oil from calamari (squid) to be very rish in DHA - really ?
Is there any evidence to indicate that DHA/EPA can help vision ?
What is the process involved in the manufacture of DHA/EPA rich fish oil?
Are there veggie sources of DHA for children ?
Could my inflammatory symptoms be brought on by simply ingesting supplements containing omega-3-6-9 fatty acids?
Can DHA/EPA supplementation be taken while on an anti-coagulant?
What types of omega-3 fatty acids are in seal oil?
THe conversion rate of ALA to EPA/DHA has been well studied in humans. What about EPA conversion to DHA ?
Can one actually feel any physical effects on the heart by taking omega-3 fatty acids?
Is a daily intake of 550 mg of DHA/EPA for the possible reduction in the risk of fatal heart attack and stroke excessively high?
What are your thoughts about different recommended intakes?
What is stearidonic acid? Is it an omega-3 fatty acid?
Thank you your great evidence-based information ! Is algal DHA diferent from fish oil DHA ?
I have myopia and hyperopia in my right eye. Would DHA cure my hyperopia and myopia?
What will be the appropriate amount of omega-3 should given to 4 year old boy?
What is the recommended daily intake for a 22 month old girl?
How long does it take for DHA to reach acceptable levels in the breast milk of lactation women?
Is overdosing with EPA/DHA a common problen such that only the precursor LNA should be used ?
Are there any studies on omega-3 and high myopia indicating that supplementation might be helpful?
Is there a specific ratio of DHA:EPA that should be present in a supplement for overall health?
Can DHA/EPA from fish and krill oils be expected to lower blood cholesterol levels ?
How much DHA/EPA (sum) has been recommended in N.Am. for healthy adults and what levels per day may be considered excessive?
Are there any possible concerns for vegan vegetarians who consume ALA from plant sources without any DHA/EPA in their diet?
Is there any potential benefit of DHA/EPA to the eldery?
Are there any non-prescription supplements available which contain high levels of DHA/EPA?
What is the procedure for determining the amount of omega-3 fatty acid in one’s own body?
Does Chia oil have omega-3 fatty acids and how does this source compare with fish oil?
Does black raspberry or black cumin seed oil have DHA/EPA ?
Are there any differences in the bioavailability and efficacy of triglyceride (TG) vs. ethyl ester (EE) forms of DHA/EPA?
Has DHA/EPA been taken along with low-dose aspirin in clinical trials?
Can omega-3 oils help in treating melanoma ?
Does DHA omega-3 interfere with Cyclosporine? Will it help with retinitis pigmentosa?
What is the largest and longest study ever performed supporting a beneficial effect of consuming DHA omega-3 in Alzheimer disease?
Are there any recent articles on conversion efficiency?
Can a veggie source of EPA give rise to DHA in humans ?
Should an anti-oxidant be present in omega-3 supplements containing DHA/EPA?
Does eating 3 servings (100 gm/serving)of fish per week provide enough DHA for a pregnant women ?
Are there any studies indicating that adverse affects could result from the concomitant intake of supplemental vitamin C with DHA/EPA?
Is there any recent evidence that supplemental DHA/EPA may help against eczema?
What is the potential benefit of supplementation with EPA/DHA for people with inflammatory bowel disorders?
Where can I obtain blood testing for the Omega Score and the Omega-3 Index?
Have there been published clinical trials on omega-3 and urination?
I consume a cereal containing flax, corn and amaranth which states that I'm getting 350 mg of omega-3 per serving. What is the source?
Do you have any information on the omega-3 content of farmed or wild salmon and its mercury content?
Can the administration of omega-3 supplements to a patient on anti-coagulants drug therapy experience bleeding problems?
Some websites state caution in avoiding fish oil which has been overly oxidized - agree ?
Have there been any published studies on DHA omega-3 and optic neuritis?
Are you aware of any human studies on a low DHA omega-3 status in male sperm being related to infertility ?
Is salmon a source of DHA and is breast milk a preferred source of DHA over formula for infants?
Have there been any safety studies on patients with stage 3 kidney disease who are taking supplemental DHA/EPA?
Might the DHA/EPA in omega-3 enriched pork and eggs be as available as from fish ?
I’m interested in supplementing my diet with DHA and EPA but I am allergic to fish oil capsules since they cause an immediate bout of psoriasis. Are there any commercially-available fish oils that I c
Is there a benefit for cardio care in consuming ALA with DHA and EPA?
What daily doses of EPA/DHA have been used in the juvenile or adult studies with rheumatoid arthritis.
Can I record Dr. Holub's presentation about DHA for eye and brain development and share such great information with moms?
How important is it for an infant to be given a DHA-containing infant formula if the mother cannot breastfeed?
Are there certain ratios of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that can be beneficial in a patient having had a stroke and exhibiting some aphasia?
Are there any long term studies comparing the availability of triglyceride vs. ethyl eater forms of EPA/DHA ?
Is there any evidence in the literature for interactions between high-dose omega-3 fish oil and warfarin?
Are you aware of any “natural enzymes” present in fish oil?
Have there been any studies which have provided daily dosages of DHA/EPA to those who have suffered a heart attack?
What is the evidence on impact of fish or fish oil supplements on asthma in young children?
Has there been any research on DHA/EPA in people with seizure disorders?
Are you aware of any clinical studies that have been conducted fish oil containing DHA in Downs syndrome patients?
What is your opinion on the absorbtion/bioavailability of EE vs. TG forms of fish oil?
Are there good human studies to show a benefit for the green-lipped mussel oil in treating arthritis ?
Have there been any studies on the potential for DHA/EPA supplementation to reduce the risk of the recurrence of colon cancer?
Is there a sound scientific study to show a synergistic heralth effecy by combining DHA with whey protein ?
Dr. Holub - I can't find any human information on the conversion potential of LA (omega-6)to AA (omega-6)?
I attended the symposium put on by the DHA/EPA Institute where a ? speaker discussed omega-3 and mercury.
Might too much DHA reduce the benefits of EPA for those with Multiple Sclerosis who may be taking omega-3 supplements?
Does ALA offer any potential health benefits independent of its conversion to EPA/DHA and can one attain target intakes of DHA/EPA witho